Three scientists have been awarded the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics for their work to understand complex systems such as the Earth’s climate.
Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hassellmann and Giorgio Parisi were announced as this year’s winners at a news conference in Stockholm.
The winners will share the prize money of 10 million krona (£842,611).
The Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel founded the prizes in his will, written a year before his death in 1896.
A total of 218 individuals have now won the physics prize since it was first awarded in 1901.
Only four of these laureates have been women. One physicist, John Bardeen, won the prize twice – in 1956 and 1972.
Previous winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics
- 2020 – Sir Roger Penrose, Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez received the prize for their work on the nature of black holes.
- 2019 – James Peebles, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz shared the prize for ground-breaking discoveries about the Universe.
- 2018 – Donna Strickland, Arthur Ashkin and Gerard Mourou were awarded the prize for their discoveries in the field of laser physics.
- 2017 – Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne and Barry Barish earned the award for the detection of gravitational waves.
- 2016 – David Thouless, Duncan Haldane and Michael Kosterlitz shared the award for their work on rare phases of matter.
- 2015 – Takaaki Kajita and Arthur McDonald were awarded the prize the discovery that neutrinos switch between different “flavours”.